Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Philippians 4:2-9 (Part 3)

Paul’s Final Exhortations—Phil. 4:2-9 Continued

Live Thoughtfully—4:8-9
Paul comes now to the end of his exhortations, which is clearly indicated by the words: “Finally, brethren” (Phil 4:8a). Finally signals the last of the imperatives. The Greek word (loipon) has the idea of furthermore, or the rest, or the remaining.[1] Here it has the idea of one more thing. It introduces a fresh idea, unconnected to the sentence above. It is in keeping with the continual idea of our mind (way of thinking) as aspects of having the mind of Christ. Both verses 8-9 are one sentence in the Greek text. The sentence provides two matters of importance, which are centered around the words logizomai (to think) and prasso (to do).[2]
In verse 8, Paul conveys how we are to think by a series of descriptive clauses consisting of two words each.[3] Each of these clauses of verse 8 each is introduced by the Greek relative pronoun hosos meaning for as much as, as many as, whomever or whatever. Someone has called verse 8, the Paul’s power of positive thinking. However, Paul is not making this into a philosophy of positive thinking. There are those who say what Paul is saying was borrowed from Greek philosophy. I disagree. That is unnecessary. These virtues are rooted as well in Hebrew thought and Old Testament prophetic preaching. Paul lists 6 virtues that the mind is to focus on, all of which are good and beneficial:
  • True (alethes), meaning that which is truthful and worthy of credit. Eadie says, “We take it to mean generally—“morally truthful,” whether specially referred to and illustrated in the gospel or not. For truth exists independently of the gospel, though the gospel has shed special light on its nature and obligation.[4] Paul reminds us that we must be “girded” with truth (Eph. 6:14) which comes by the renewing of our mind (Rom. 12:1).
  • Honorable (semnos), meaning reputable, noble, honorable, honest, or august. Used only here and in the Pastorals (cf.1 Tim. 3:8, 11; Titus 2:2). There it characterizes those who oppose slanders, liars, and unfaithfulness. It refers to majestic and lofty things “that lift the mind from the cheap and tawdry to that which is noble and good and of moral worth.”[5]
  • Right (dikaios), meaning just, upright, or fair. “It means that which is expected in duty and which is claimed as a right because of one’s conformity to the rules of God or society.[6]
  • Pure (hagnos) which means unmixed, pure, holy, or blameless. It is being free of impurity and corruption free. It is an aspect of integrity. It speaks of purity of motive and actions.
  • Lovely (prosphiles) meaning, friendly, grateful, pleasing, or acceptable. This word is not a virtue listed in Greek philosophy.[7] It is used only here in the New Testament. O’Brien points out that the basic meaning is “that which calls forth love, love-inspiring.”[8] It carries the idea of that which is amiable. Used in the Jewish writings for making one attractive to the congregation (Ecclus. 4:7) or for gracious speech (Ecclus. 10:13). It speaks of our mind centering on the amiable, not the hostile.
  • Good repute (euphemos), another word not found in Greek philosophy and found only here in the New Testament. It means commendable, admirable, good repute, or reputable. It expresses the idea of kindness. It implies essential worthiness. Looking for the good, not the bad.
In listing these virtues, Paul now sums them up by two conditional phrases, which “reinforces the all-encompassing nature of what has preceded.”[9] Notice the two summing up words: excellence and praise. The word excellence means goodness, virtue, or valuable quality of any kind. In this case it indicates the ground or reason of praise or praiseworthy. Paul knows that when we focus our thoughts on such things, we conform to the mind of Christ. To do this we must destroy speculation and lofty things raised up against the knowledge of God, making every thought captive to the obedience of Christ (2 Corinthians 10:5).
Therefore Paul gives a direct imperative—“dwell on these things” (Phil. 4:8). It is in the present tense indicating we are to continually dwell on these things. The word dwell is the Greek verb logizomai meaning to think upon, to dwell upon, or ponder. “They were to ponder on these things, not as matters of mere speculation, but of highest ethical moment, and of immediate practical utility” says Eadie[10] These things refer to the virtues listed in this verse. Swindoll reminds us, “No matter what you’re dealing with or how bad things seems to be or why God may be permitting them, deliberately letting your mind dwell on positive, uplifting thoughts will enable you to survive.”[11]
Along with right thinking comes taking the right action. “The things you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, practice these things, and the God of peace will be with you” (Phil. 4:9).  Here Paul returns to the concept of modeling. He uses himself as a model. “This new series is introduced by a, the definite relative pronoun (those things which), not by hosos (whatever things which).[12] The verse speaks of imitation and leads us back to what Paul said in Philippians 3:17. He follows it with four aorist indicative active verbs, and reminds them of their response to his ministry. These things that Paul mentions are not general as being excellent and praiseworthy; rather they had been visually specifically ministered to them by Paul. They are: 
  • The things they learned from his teaching. It speaks not only of knowledge, but applied knowledge. It is knowledge that is appropriated to oneself. He taught the Word and they learned the Word.
  • They had received the Word. The Greek word is paralambano, meaning to receive or take possession. However, here the word goes beyond learning and appropriating. It is “a technical term for the receiving of a tradition for the purpose of handing it on intact to others.”[13] They received it to pass it on. We are not to be reservoirs of the truth, but channels of the truth.
  • They were to act upon what they heard. This has two possibilities. First, it may be a way of repeating what they heard in his preaching and conversations when he was with them. Second, and more likely, is that it refers to the impression made about his character that has been transmitted to them when he was in Rome. It would refer to the testimony of his life, and what they heard from others about him.
  • What they had seen in Paul. What they heard was supplemented by what they had seen in him. It speaks of the personal observation of Paul and his actions. They had seen and experienced his ministry among them. They knew what he preached he practiced. They had seen him in good times and bad. They had seen him in freedom and in bondage. They knew his character was true.
Paul presented the pattern before them, now he admonishes them “practice these things” (Phil 4:9). The verb is a present active imperative, meaning to do, practice, or put into action, and emphasizes constant habitual doing. It is to be continual and speaks of a habitual lifestyle. It speaks of our responsibility. Our putting of faith into action. 
The result is “the God of peace will be with you.” I do not think it is a mistake that Paul put this the way he did. In verse 7 he points to the peace of God, here he speaks of the person, the God of peace. Verse 7 speaks of God’s outworking; here he speaks of God’s presence. Together they speak of God’s protection and His presence. Right praying, right thinking, and right doing are the way for victorious living.

[1]  Zodhiates, WORD STUDY DICTIONARY: NT, 927.
[2]  Hawthorne, WBC: PHILIPPIANS, 185.
[3]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 499.
[4]  Eadie, PHILIPPIANS (4:8).
[5]  Ibid, 188.
[6]  Zodhiates: WORD STUDY DICTIONARY:NT, 457.
[7]  This reinforces the idea that Paul is not copying words from Greek philosophy.
[8]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 505.
[9]  Ibid, 506.
[10]  Eadie, PHILIPPIANS, (4:8).
[11]  Swindoll, LAUGH AGAIN, 204.
[12]  Hawthorne, WBC: PHILIPPIANS, 189.
[13]  Ibid, 189. 

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Elements of Faith

Sermon in a Nutshell

1. Revelation = The Word of God - Romans 10:17
         (speaks to the Mind)
2. Relationship - Walk with God - Hebrews 11:6
         (speaks to the Heart)
3. Response - Doing the Will of God
         (speaks to the Will)

Sunday, July 20, 2014

PHILIPPIANS 4:2-9 (Part 2)

Live Prayerfully—4:6-7

Paul starts this admonition out in the negative: “Be anxious for nothing” (4:6a). While this admonition is given independent of the state of the nearness of the Lord, it is nevertheless related. It is because of the nearness of the Lord that anxiety is not necessary. Again this admonition is emphatic, thus a command. In the Greek text nothing is the first word, putting it in the emphatic position. This emphasizes that the statement is negative, and is to be stopped. The negative used with the present imperative indicates that the Philippians had been anxious, but is now urged to stop being so.[1] The word for anxious are the Greek word merimnao and means to worry or be anxious. Lightfoot says it means “anxious harassing care.”[2] It speaks of unreasonable anxiety, especially about things out of our control. Muller points out: “To care is a virtue, but to foster cares is sin, for each anxiety is not trust in God, but a trusting in oneself, which comes to inward suffering, fears, and worry.”[3] Some one once said that “Worry is the misuse of imagination.”[4] Paul is echoing what Jesus taught in his Sermon on the Mount (cf. Matthew 6:25-29). He is also echoing the Old Testament (cf. Psalm 55:22). This admonition applies to believers in all dispensations. It is a divine principle of relationship. God’s people are not to worry. It is true in the past, true in the present, and true in the future. Now it is one thing to forbid worry and another thing not to worry. However, Paul gives the solution.

But” (alla) is a conjunction which here sets up a contrast or antithesis. Instead of being unduly anxious, they are “in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God” (Phil. 4:6b). Instead of worry, Paul tells us to hand over our concerns to God. If we worry we are keeping the problem in our own hands, not God’s, thereby assuming it ourselves. Paul puts the remedy for worry in a positive injunction to pray. Paul does not say as modern psychologists will: “Do not waste your time and energy on something that is out of your control.” This is acceptance. We all agree with the psychologist truth; but it fails to give a solution. Acceptance is not a solution to worry. “The cure for worry is not inaction.[5] Paul instead calls for an action that offers the solution. It is prayer and the power of God to comfort and give assurance. It is both a positive and active solution. It sets forth “the divine remedy for a troubled soul.[6]

The characteristics of the action:
  • Its situation—“in everything.” This is in contrast to “in nothing” above. “In everything” we are to pray. It speaks of praying in every situation, every circumstance, and in all things. This is reinforced by Paul in 1 Thessalonians 5:17-18.
  • Its nature—“prayer and supplicationlet your request be made known to God.” The nature is threefold: (1) Prayer (proseuche), is the general term for prayer indicating worship and adoration. (2) Supplication (deesis) is also an element of prayer or entreaty.  Supplication is a progressive step of prayer; it turns from the general to the particular. It is a humble and earnest asking of God for a need arising out of want or circumstance. This can be general such as grace, wisdom, encouragement, help or faith. (3) Request is even more particular, for a specific item that is needed. The antidote to worry is to communicate the need to God and empower Him to work it out. This is true in all areas of life—spiritual, financial, and everyday living. We are to “let our request be made known….” The Greek verb is gnorizoestho, meaning to reveal, declare, or present. It is an imperative (voice of a command), but the expression is unusual because the Greek word suggests that God is unaware of their request.[7] However, that is not the case as indicated by Matthew 6:32. Rather, it is used not because God is unaware, but because of two things: (1) God is aware of them, but they have not yet been handed over to Him. In the request, the believer is casting this care upon God (cf. 1 Peter 5:7). He is giving the responsible to God. (2) He is acknowledging his dependence upon God. God is not waiting for knowledge of the situation; He is waiting for the acknowledgement by the believer of his dependence upon Him in the situation. The word is used because He is unaware of their acknowledgement until such acknowledgment is made.
  • Its accompaniment—“with thanksgiving.” Prayer is to be exercised thankfully. Paul regularly uses to denote gratitude that finds outward expression in thanksgiving. It is to be our attitude of heart, as well as our expression in prayer. It is an expression that recognizes God’s ability and His grace for what He has done and is going to do. It is an expression of gratitude for His faithfulness. Thanksgiving looks back to His provisions in the past and expresses gratitude. It expresses two things: (1) Glory to God (2 Cor. 4:15). (2) Confidence in God’s continued working on our behalf, based on the past. May I dare to say that Paul reminds us of this because when we get in certain situations we forget for worry can blind us; thus we must make a deliberate effort to do so. Why? Because it is a part of prayer. It is a part of adoration to God. We must enter His gates with thanksgiving. It is a part of our approach to God. Prayer is primarily an act of worship. Worship is a product of a thankful heart. We must be reminded that the antidote to worry is primarily worshipful prayer and then making our requests known.
  • Its promise—“And the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 4:7).  Making our request known by worshipful prayer results in the peace of God. Hendricksen says, “Peace is the smile of God reflected in the soul of the believer.[8] The peace of God is different than peace with God. Peace with God is a result of our justification (Romans 5:1). However, the peace of God comes from our relationship with God. It comes through our communication with Him by prayer. It is a term found only here in the New Testament.[9] The conjunction and (kai) introduces the result or the consequence of making our request to God. The term peace is used in the sense of tranquility. This peace is not passive, but active in two ways: (1) It “surpasses all comprehension.” Surpasses is the Greek word hyperecho, a compound word—hyper (above or over) and echo (to have). It means to have over, stand out above, to surpass, or to go over the top. It speaks of going beyond a boundary or overflowing a container. In this case it goes beyond understanding. Some translate it as “transcends.”[10] This is not simply a comparison between peace and the intellect; rather it carries the idea on the uniqueness of peace that goes beyond our understanding. We cannot fully understand or comprehend the peace of God, but we can experience it. (2) It “will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.” The background of this phrase is military. The word guard is phroureo meaning to guard, or keep watch over. It was used for a military detachment to stand on guard duty (cf. 2 Cor. 11:32).[11] It speaks of a promise of protection. The Bible uses the word to speak of the divine protection of God over His people (cf. 1 Peter 1:5). The object of this protection is the heart and mind of the believer. Lloyd-Jones says,
It conjures up a picture. What will happen is that this peace of God will walk round the ramparts and towers of our life. We are inside, and the activities of the heart and mind are producing those stresses and anxieties and strains from the outside. But the peace of God will keep them all out and we ourselves inside will be at perfect peace. It is God’s who does it.[12]

[1]  O’Brien, NIGTC: PHILIPPIANS, 491.
[2]  Lightfoot, PHILIPPIANS, 163.
[3]  Muller, NICNT: PHILIPPIANS, 141.
[4]  In the margin of my Bible, author unknown.
[5]  Hendriksen, NTC: PHILIPPIANS, 195.
[6]  Gromacki, STAND UNITED, 179.
[7]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 493.
[8]  Hendricksen, NTC: PHILIPPIANS, 198.
[9]  However there is a parallel expression, “the peace of Christ” in Col. 3:15.
[11]  O’Brien, NIGTC: PHILIPPIANS, 498.
[12]  Lloyd-Jones, THE LIFE OF PEACE, 175. 

My 5 favorite THEOLOGY books:

(In alphabetical order)

  1. C.F. Baker, DISPENSATIONIAL THEOLOGY, Grace Bible College, Grand Rapids, Mi, 191971
  2. James Oliver Buswell, A SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, Zondervan, Grand Rapids MI, 1962
  3. Lewis Sperry Chafer, 8 Volumes, Dallas Seminary Press, Dallas TX, 1971
  4. Augustus Hopkins Strong, SYSTEMTIC THEOLOGY, Judson Press, Los Angeles, CA, reprint 1962.
  5. Charles R. Swindoll, Roy B. Zuck, UNDERSTANDING CHRIST THEOLOGY, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, TN, 2003. 

Thursday, July 17, 2014


1 CORINTHIANS 11:23-34

Reading about the Communion, I just jotted down the following factors:

First, it was given to Paul by revelation (v. 23)
Second, it is anchored in history and passion of our Lord (v. 23)
Third, it is a commemoration and proclamation of the Lord’s death (v. 24, 26).
Fourth, it is a reminder of Christ’s coming (v. 26).

Some spiritual truths or applications:

It symbolizes that we feed on Christ.
It symbolizes that we are partakers of Christ.
It points to our unity in Christ.

Friday, July 11, 2014

PHILIPPIANS 4:2-9 (Part 1)

Paul’s Final Exhortations—Phil. 4:2-9

Now Paul turns to giving his final exhortations to the church at Philippi. It should be observed that all exhortations do not have the same purpose. In these final exhortations we see two different purposes—correction or encouragement.

Exhortation to Harmony—4:2-3

This exhortation is given for correction. This is clearly indicated by its very language. It is has two parts: First, it is directed to two people: “I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to live in harmony in the Lord” (Phil. 4:2a). The earnestness of the appeal is seen in the double usage of the word urge (parakaleo). It has the meaning of call upon, admonish, persuade, to beg, beseech, or implore. Paul begs each one to a corrective action, but he does not assert blame or take sides. It is a rebuke, but one that is not offensive. He is making an appeal to both parties to an action that evidently does not exist between them at the present time. They were in disagreement. These problems are not doctrinal, but are differences between personalities or opinions that was causing disharmony between them. Sad to say that most problems within a local body have to do with personalities, not doctrinal issues. Baker observes: “There are a hundred and one such little flies that get into the ointment and spoil it: things not sinful in themselves, but wedges, nevertheless, which can separate the brethren.”[1] What this disagreement and disharmony was about we are not told. It would have been common knowledge in the church. The corrective action is to be in harmony. The Greek reads: to auto phronein (lit. to think the same thing). It could be translated to be likeminded, to be in harmony, or to be united. It is clear that this was an attitude problem. Wrong thinking leads to wrong attitudes. The phrase “embraces not only the idea of possessing ‘a common mind’ but also having identical feeling and attitudes toward each other, a total harmony of life.”[2] They were not exercising the mind of Christ, which Paul instructed in Phil. 2:1-5.   

It should be pointed out that this lack of unity between them was not always true. Two things are clear about them from verse 3:
  • They were active in the church for some time. Indeed, Acts indicates that women had important roles in the churches of Macedonia (Acts 16:14, 40; 17:4, 12). These women were a part of that legacy.
  • They were Paul’s fellow-workers in ministry, and had a harmonious relationship in the past.
This presents more of a reason for Paul to single them out for this corrective purpose of reestablishing harmony. An interesting factor in all of this is that one finds an absence of blame, judgmental attitudes, or condemnation. (More churches need to keep this in mind when dealing with these kinds of problems). Paul is not interested in assigning such elements; he is interested in the help that can be provided to these two ladies to become harmonious in their relationship to each other, and to the church.  

Second, this exhortation includes the church body or someone in the body. Paul turns from the recipients of help to the helpers. “Indeed, true companion, I ask you also to help these women…” (Phil 4:3a). The text seems to indicate Paul is addressing one person. There seems to be three views as to whom Paul is speaking.
  • First, is the personal name view. It holds that the Greek translation should be “Indeed, Syrygus, I ask you to help these women…” (Phil 4:3a). Hendriksen says “It is safe to infer that Syrygus, about whom we have no further information, was one of Paul’s comrades or associates in the work of the Gospel.[3] However, the Greek word syrygus does not appear in any Greek literature as a proper name.[4]
  • Second, is the unknown person view, but referred to simply as “loyal yokefellow.[5] This view holds that Paul is instructing a person unknown to us to help these ladies. This person would not be unknown to the church and Paul. Many suggestions have been made as to whom it may be—Lydia (not likely since the tense is masculine), Timothy, Clement, and Epaphroditus. However in reality this person is a mystery to us.
  • The third view holds that the church as a whole is referred to as a single individual. It is a personification of church as one person or body. Paul sees the entire church as one unit. “Together, then, the Philippians are to help these women reconcile their differences.”[6]

Of the three views, the first seems the most unlikely. The other two views have merit, and either is possible. It comes down to preference and which fits the context better. On that basis, I favor the third view because the context is dealing with unity, and the emphasis is on the common struggle, and the function of the whole church. This is indicated in the phrase: “together with Clement also and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life” (Phil. 2:3c). Clement is unknown to us. Also this is the only place the book of life is mentioned outside the book of Revelation. It is a note of security. All believers are secure in Christ. All have their names written in the Lamb’s book of life.

Whomever this verse may refer to, the phrase indicates a group within the church (if not the body of the church) whose function is to “help them” (Phil 2:3a). The Greek word is syllambano and its root means to seize or catch; however, here in the middle voice it means to take hold together, assist or help.[7] This is the dramatic high point on corporate responsibility[8] of the church as the Body of Christ. They are to aid in the correction. They are to help restore harmony between these two ladies.  

Exhortations to Live by—4:4-7

Now Paul is giving exhortations of encouragement. Paul often turns from a negative situation to more positive exhortations. Baker calls these exhortations a “Recipe for Peace.”[9] Paul identifies elements that lead to the peace of God in the lives of the believers (4:8). Each exhortation is an imperative and while each stands alone, yet they are loosely connected. Silva comments that the loose connection of the exhortations in verses 5-7 “may be viewed as reinforcing Paul’s call for believers to rejoice.”[10] He also notes that “Joy, a forbearing spirit, and inward peace are qualities that very much belong together.”[11] O’Brien identifies these injunctions as the use of asyndeton.[12] Asyndeton is the omission of conjunctions in which they would normally be used.  (This is also found in Romans 12:9-21). By using the asyndeton, each injunction independent of the other, and is emphatic, taking on the voice of commands. They are addressed to the whole congregation.

Live Rejoicing—4:4

Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say rejoice!” (Phil. 4:4). This is not simply an admonition, but a command. In fact, a double imperative is used to show the necessity and importance of the command. It is given for emphasis. Calvin says it is a call to steadfastness in joy.[13] Thus, rejoicing is an act of obedience. We are to choose joy. Joy and rejoicing are to be keynotes in the believers’ life (cf. 1:4, 18; 2:17, 18, 3:1). Lightfoot notes that this injunction has an element of almost being a departing benediction.[14] Surely with this injunction, Paul is beginning his last words and conclusions to the Philippians.

In giving this injunction he notes two things:
  • Rejoicing is “in the Lord.” This is a prepositional phrase and indicates the sphere in which the rejoicing is done. This indicates that this is not natural joy which is dependent on circumstances. It is a mark of our dependence on the Lord and obedience to His will.
  • Rejoicing is to be continual—“always.” In 1 Thessalonians 5:16 we are told to “Rejoice evermore!” Paul also reminds us that we believers can be “sorrowful, yet always rejoicing” (2 Cor. 6:10). It is the result of relationship, not circumstances. Paul was in prison and his life was in the balance, yet he rejoiced in the Lord. Even in their own city he exemplified what this meant: shackled in their jail, sgining joyfully in the night (Acts 16).  This is a display of having the mind of Christ.

Live in the Spirit of Gentleness—4:5
Let your gentle [spirit] be known to all men” (Phil 4:5a). The word spirit is not in the Greek text, and was added by the translators. The Greek word for gentle is the adjective, epieikes, meaning mildness, gentleness, or forbearance. The KJV has it translated as moderation, which means to be less extreme or intensive. The Greek indicates it is an act of fairness and graciousness. It is the opposite of contention and self-seeking.[15] It is an element of God’s wisdom from above (James 3:17). It is to be a characteristic of the churches’ leadership (1 Tim. 3:3).  Again this reflects our Lord’s attitude and manner of action (cf. 2 Cor. 10:1). O’Brien points out that it “signifies a humble, patient steadfastness” which enables one to act “without hatred or malice[16] in spite of injustice. This is an exhortation to practice restraint and self-control. The practice of this injunction entails:
  • Be prepared to be gracious toward others, even if it means taking less than your due.
  • Be willing to absorb emotional hurt and injustice without hostility, hatred, or malice.
  • Be willing to actively and patiently consider the other person before yourself.
  • Be willing to be gentle with others, even when they do not deserve it.
It is just what our Lord did in His passion. This gentleness is a part of having the attitude of Christ, as well as the fruit of the Spirit. It is an injunction to be like our Lord. Notice this injunction to be practiced toward “all men,” not just believers. This is reinforced by Paul in Titus 3:2, “be peaceable, gentle, showing every consideration for all men.
At the end of this injunction Paul makes a statement: “The Lord is near” (Phil. 4:5b). This statement is a surprise and sudden, given without warning, and “without any conjunctions to join it either with what precedes or with what follows.”[17] Ambiguity is a feature of the statement. The word near is the Greek word engys and can mean nearness of place or time. There is no clear indication which way it should be understood. Many take it in the sense of time, indicating it refers to the nearness of the Lord’s coming.[18] This indicates imminence. Paul certainly has just communicated the hope of the believer (3:20-21). Others take it as nearness of place or location, and speak of the omnipresence of Jesus in the church.[19] He speaks of his availability to enable the believer. It speaks of His awareness of and nearness in our circumstances (cf. Psalms 34:18; 119:151). This view fits the context of admonitions. The statement speaks of His presence, promise, and assurance. Both views are theologically acceptable; some say a choice is not necessary, both meanings are true.[20] Of the two possible interpretations, I favor His presence as the most likely meaning. It gets to the heart of these injunctions, as well as the motive to follow these injunctions. The Lord is there; present with them (and with us). He is in their midst. We must never think of the Lord who is out there. He is with us, always near, and always present.

To be Continued...

[2]  Hawthorne, WBC: PHILIPPIANS, 178.
[3]  Hendriksen, NTC: PHILIPPIANS, 191.
[4]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 480-481.
[5]  Gromacki, STAND UNITED, 175.
[6]  Hawthorne, WBC: PHILIPPIANS, 180.
[7]   O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 481.
[8]   Silva, WEC: PHILIPPIANS, 222.
[10]  Silva, WEC: PHILIPPIANS, 224.
[11]  Ibid, 223.
[12]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 484. Also see Wallace, BEYOND THE BASICS, 659.
[14]  Lightfoot, PHILIPPIANS, 160.
[15]  Lightfoot, PHILIPPIANS, 160.
[16]  O’Brien, NIGNT: PHILIPPIANS, 487.
[17]  Hawthorne, WBC: PHILIPPIANS, 182.
[18]  Silva, WEC: PHILIPPIANS, 225; Wuest, PHILIPPIANS, 109.
[19]  D.A. Carson, BASICS FOR BELIEVERS, (Baker, Grand Rapids, 1996), 110.
[20]  O’Brien, NIGTC: PHILIPPIANS, 489.