Thursday, July 30, 2015

Book Review— Questions on Baptism and Lord’s Supper

John S. Hammett
Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, 2015

This is a part of the 40 Questions series by Kregel Publications. It certainly covers two subjects that have been controversial and debated since the beginning of the church. I was interested in the subject since I am not of the same viewpoint as the authors. I must admit that I am not a Baptist, so my perception comes from an independent non-Baptist view.  I did not come with the idea of being critical, but the idea of wanting to better understand their positions on these two great subjects. Overall the book seems fair, but also biased. The book does answer important questions about the subjects with clarity and is uunderstandably He does bring out good information on the basic denominational differences—except for those who doe not practice water baptism nor practice the Lord’s Supper, which their views are noticeably absent. While these views are relatively small in the world of Christianity, they deserved to be at least given some notice or mention.  

There is merit in the book on the subject of baptism, however it is limited to the practice of water baptism, not a study of baptism overall. It should be re-titled Questions on Water Baptism and Lord's Supper. It gives good basic overall history of the subject of the doctrine and its development. For those who have questions on the subject will likely find it here: e.g. baptismal regeneration, infant baptism, and means of grace.

However, I am disappointed mainly by what is not included on the subject of baptism. There is nothing on the types of baptism that do not include water (e.g. the baptism of fire). Likewise, the subject of spiritual baptism is only spoken of in relationship to water baptism. All which limits the subject. 

In my opinion the sections and questions on the Lord’s Supper is not much better than the ones of baptism. Like the subject of baptism, the author gives a fair view of the differences among Christians. He deals with the major issues. One will find areas that one agrees with and some he disagrees with. Like baptism he says we celebrate the Lord’s Supper because it is commanded. He does well on the meaning of the Lord’s Supper, but seems to favor a closed communion, and suggests that the movement to an open communion is due to downplaying of theological and biblical standards (p 272). He concludes with some practical suggestions on how to use the Lord’s Supper in worship.

The book is organized well, and spurs thought by questions at the end of each chapter. It is readable, and not overly technical. It gives good overall information and will answer basic questions one may have on the subjects. It is not a strong book for a detailed study of the subjects. There are better books on the subjects.

I received this book free from Kregel Publications for the purpose of reviewing it. I was not required to write a positive review. The opinions I have expressed are my own. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission's 16 CFR, Part 255. 

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Studies of Colossians [2]

Salutation of Colossians 1:1-2

1. Author (1:1)

Like most letters of the period, the author opened with his own name in the greeting. This the customary form in the letters of the first century.  The writer is Paul, who was originally named Saul of Tarsus. He was born of Jewish parents, but was a Roman citizen. It was required that Roman citizens be registered with the tria nomina, three names that consisted of praenomen (forename), a nomen gentile (family name) and a cognomen (given or additional name).[1] Thus, Paul his Roman given name, but Scripture does not reveal his forename or family name. He was a Jew born in Gentile territory. As such, he was a product of two worlds, bilingual, able to reach both worlds. Because of his years at Ephesus, Paul was well-known in Asia Minor. Epaphras, evidently the Pastor at Colossae, was a product of Paul’s ministry at Ephesus and his associate (Col. 1:6-7, 4:13, Phm. 23).

Paul associates Timothy with himself as a brother and co-laborer. Timothy was present when Paul wrote the letter. Most agree that he was not a coauthor as some claim.[2] It was common for Paul to mention others who were ministering with him when he writes his letters. Timothy was like a son to Paul.  He is mentioned more often in his writings than any other person associated with him. However, according to 4:18, he had no part in writing the epistle. Neither Paul nor Timothy was known by sight to the believers in Colossae (2:1), but they were well-known.

2.  Authorization (1:1)

The authorization for Paul to write to the Colossians is his position found in three things: First, the guidance of the Holy Spirit; second, the inspiration of the Holy Spirit; and third, his position an apostle.  An apostle (apostolos) is one sent with authority of the sender. It is used in a sense of a commissioned one, an ambassador, or an “authorized emissary.”[3] In the classical period it was a naval military term used of one sent to command an expedition.[4]  Paul is the authorized apostle of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles (Rom. 11:13). It speaks of authorized authority given by Christ for his distinctive leadership. “Of Jesus Christ” is a genitive of possession, and means belonging to Jesus Christ. Paul was saved by Christ, a possession of Christ, and sent forth to represent Christ among the Gentiles. This happened “by the will of God.” The Greek word dia (by) qualifies the word apostle, telling us how Paul became an apostle. The phrase is also found in 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 1:11 and 2 Timothy 1:1. Paul’s apostleship was by a divine appointment from God Himself. It started at his conversion on the Damascus road (cf. Acts 9:1-22; 23:3-16; 26:9-18). The appointment gave him authorization to teach and care for the churches. It did not come by men (Gal. 1:1), but by direct revelation. The commission was an independent and direct call from Jesus Christ Himself (Gal. 1:15-17). He was both authorized and chosen as the apostle to the Gentiles (Rom. 11:13). Therefore his call and commission was distinct from that of the Twelve. Christ committed to him the gospel of the uncircumcision, as he did Peter with the gospel of the circumcision (Gal. 2:8). He was revealed the mystery for the Dispensation of Grace (Eph. 3:1-13). However, his ministry was directed toward all men, Jew and Gentile. (Rom. 1:14, 16). Paul strongly establishes his credentials as an apostle at the outset of this letter. This was done for two reasons:
·         First, he never visited the saints at this location.
·         Second, it was necessary that Paul strongly emphasize his authority in and by Christ for he will expose and refute false teaching in the church.
They needed to recognize his position and authority, so he establishes it at once.

3. Addressees (1:2)

This epistle is addressed to “the saints and faithful brethren in Christ at Colossae.” The recipients are described in a twofold matter: First, they are “saints.”  The Greek word is hagios, denoting the believers’ position. When the word is used of believers they are saints, separated ones or holy ones. The word basically means holy; one who is set apart for service. “Holiness is a central determination of Christians as already they worship God, reconciled by Christ’s holy offering and constituted the temple of the Holy Spirit,” observes Procksch.[5] Thus, some have held that the word should be taken as an adjective and rendered “holy and faithful ones” (as in the NIV). However, it is a noun and there is no need change it.[6] Paul may have borrowed the word found in pagan Greek religions, where it means “devoted to the gods.” In the pagan world gifts of worship, sacrifices, and buildings were devoted to particular Greek gods. They were set apart for the worship of these gods. It was also used of persons that served the gods. Paul adapted it to the believer. The sinner becomes a saint by faith in the sacrificial work of Christ. The verb means to be set apart or marked for God’s use. “The idea of consecration is meant by the word, although it comes to be applied to all believers whether especially ‘saintly’ or not,” says Robertson.[7] In Scripture the word saint never applies to spiritual condition or practice, but always to our position. All believers are saints, separated ones or holy ones. It became a common and distinctive feature of Paul’s greetings.

Second, they are identified as “faithful brethren in Christ.” This phrase is unique in the greetings of Paul. There is debate as how it is to be translated: the active sense (believing) or the passive sense (faithful)? It can be taken either way. Lenski argues for the active sense and translates it as “believing brethren.”[8] Others take it as passive, thus “faithful brethren.”[9]  I favor the passive view.  The word “faithful” is found 4 times in this epistle (1:2, 7; 4:7, 9). In each of the other uses it indicates those who were continuing and were true to their faith (cp. 1:23). Paul is using the word in the other instances as examples of faithfulness. In the use of the passive, Paul hints at a possible defection and indirectly warns the readers.[10] He is warning them that they are to remain in the condition they are in now—faithful (2:1-7). They are not to defect. The word indicates steadfastness and trustworthiness (Acts 16:15). It is the continued commitment that Paul wanted to encourage in this epistle. God’s faithfulness is to be reproduced in His people.

The two phrases “at Colossae” and “in Christ” speak of the believer’s locations.  Colossae is the believer’s earthly location. “In Christ” speaks of his spiritual location or position. This locates the believer “with precision in the purposes of God.”[11] It speaks of their earthly location, in which they serve, and is the location of our position as members of the Body of Christ.

4. Announced Greetings (1:2)
Grace to you.” These words begin the standard greeting of Paul’s epistles. Paul adapted the regular Greek greeting inserting the words grace and peace. Grace is the keynote of Paul’s gospel (Acts 20:24).  It is the central thesis of Paul’s gospel and theology based on the finished work of Christ (cf. Rom. 3:23, 24).  We are saved by grace and live and walk by grace.  We need grace daily. All blessings are of grace.  They are undeserved.  

And peace.” This brings in the Jewish background. Hence the greeting is combining the Gentile and Jewish greeting together. In the Greek Old Testament the Hebrew word shalom (peace) is translated by the Greek word used here (eirene). Eirene is the antithesis to war, indicating the cessation of war. However, peace is more, it is positive, denoting well being and blessing. Peace is the standard greeting of the Jews.  As a believer, we have judicial peace with God. This greeting goes beyond judicial peace, to the peace of God in daily living in this present stress filled world (Phil. 4:17). It is the peace of God, not simply peace with God. It is not simply spiritual prosperity or contentment, it is more than that; it is peace that satisfies the heart in spite of circumstances. It is the assurance of God’s graciousness exhibited in His presence and power in our lives.  A.T. Robertson observes that “if men had more of the Grace of Christ, they would have more real peace in heart and life.”[12] The peace of God springs from the grace of God. Grace and peace are not simply kindness and tranquility, but point to the work of God through Christ in reconciliation (Rom 5:1, Eph. 2:14-18).[13]

From God our Father.” This conveys the source of both grace and peace. The word from (apo) is a preposition of source or origin. Grace and peace are given by God the Father.  Grace embodies the full understanding of Christ’s work on our behalf, being bestowed to us by faith without merit (Rom. 3:23-24, Eph. 2:8-9). Peace is the result of Grace being bestowed (Rom. 5:1). Peace is also a fruit of the Spirit that dwells within us as believers (Gal. 5:22).

It should be noted that the King James Version has the words, “and the Lord Jesus Christ.” The authority of the best Greek text available cannot fully sustain this translation, for the words “the Lord” is not in the text.[14] The Greek text reads simply “Jesus Christ” (Ihson Criston).[15] The omission is noted early in the history of the church in the church fathers Origen (184-254 AD) and Chrysostom (349-407 AD). The phrase more than likely became a part of the text by transcribers who aimed at uniformity and thus added the words.[16]

[1]  John McRay, PAUL; HIS LIFE AND TEACHING, [Grand Rapids, Baker, 2003], 26.
[2]  James D.G. Dunn, NIGTC: THE EPISTLES TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHILEMON, [Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1996], 47.
[3]  Ibid, 44.
[4] Rengstorf, “apostoloV (dwdeka, maqhthoV),” THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, [Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2006], 1:407. The work will be footnoted as TDNT from this point on.
[5]  O. Procksch, “HagioV,” THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: Abridged in one volume, 17.  Will be footnoted from this point on as TDNT: ABRIDGED.
[6]  Peter O’Brien, WBC: COLOSSIANS, PHILEMON, [Waco TX, Word, 1982], 2.
[7]  Robertson, INTELECTUALS, 23.
[9]  Gromacki, STAND PERFECT, 26; Lightfoot, J.B., ST. PAUL’S EPISTLES TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHILEMON. [New York, MacMillan, 1890], 130; Robertson, INTELECTUALS, 23.
[10]  Lightfoot, COLOSSIANS, 130.
[11]  W.T. Wright, TNTC: COLOSSIANS AND PHILEMON, [Downers Grove IL, Inter-Varsity Press, 1986], 51
[12]  Robertson, INTELECTUALS, 24.
[13]  David W. Pao, ZECNT: COLOSSIANS, [Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 2012], 50.
[14]  John Eadie, COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE COLOSSIANS, [Grand Rapids,  Zondervan, 1957], 3
[16]  Lightfoot, COLOSSIANS, 130. Also Bruce Terry, A STUDENT’S GUIDE TO NEW TESTAMENT TEXTUAL VARIANTS, (Electronic Media,,) 1998.

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Studies in Colossians (1)

Introduction to Colossians

Without doubt Colossae was the least important church to which any epistle of St Paul is addressed.”[1] The city was in the twilight of its influence and was in the midst of its decline as Paul was penning this great epistle. The authorship of Paul has been well established and virtually unquestioned until the rise of critical scholars of the 19th century.[2] Pauline author has the united testimony until the rise of critical scholarship. Their main arguments are threefold: (1) Vocabulary differences, saying there are a number of unpauline words used. (2) Different in style. (3) Doctrinal teaching is unpauline. Vocabulary differences are not uncommon for Paul. Marshall, Travis, and Paul in their work clearly show this by comparing four same size Epistles for unique words.[3] They chart what they found:

Total number of words
Number of words not used elsewhere by Paul
% of words not used elsewhere by Paul
Two things are clear: [1] each epistle has unique words not used elsewhere; [2] The amount of unique words is about the same in each epistle. Thus, there is nothing distinctive about Colossians on this point. His style is alledged to be verbose, and the combination of words such as wisdom and understanding (1:9) and teach and admonished being joined together is unpauline. This is pure subjective nonsense. It holds that growth and versatility of writing style is not possible, plus it overlooks that Colossians has a number of stylistic features that is found in his other writings. The argument against doctrine that is unpauline again is weak. It charges that there are an absence of usual Pauline doctrinal terms (i.e., law, justification, etc). It also uses cosmic aspects of Christ’s work not found elsewhere. Barclay notes that, “the germ of all Paul’s thought about Christ in Colossians does, in fact, exist in one of his earlier letters. In I Corinthians 8:6 he writes of one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things and we by him. In that phrase is the essence of all that Paul says in Colossians.”[4]  However, there is no need for Paul always to use the same terms and the cosmic aspects are due to the nature of the heresy found at Colossae that is found nowhere else. In reality the critics have not produced a serious or reasonable argument against Paul as being the author. 

The City

At one time, Colossae was a great city.  It was located 100 miles to the east of Ephesus in the Lycus valley. It had a large Jewish population since Antiochus the Great exiled hundreds to Jews to the area. However, the population was by far more Gentile, either native Phrygians or Greek colonists. Thus, the city in Paul’s day was still a cosmopolitan city with different cultural and religious elements that were mingled together. But now Hierapolis was overtaking the city in influence in the area. Colossae was clearly on the downhill slide, losing population and influence. Although Paul had not been to this city (1:4; 2:1), and it is never mentioned in Acts, Paul wrote an important epistle to the saints in this location. What may not be influential in or to this world is important to God. God works as much in the churches of little influence as much as in the mega churches. Interestingly, the archaeologists spade has never touched this city even through its location has been known for a long time.

As to the local assembly, Epaphras seems to have begun the church (1:7; 4:12-13). He taught the Word to them (1:7) as well as probably Laodicea and Hierapolis. He may have been one of the first circuit riders, preaching in these cities on a circuit as a representative of Paul. Archippus also was one of the leaders of the church (4:17; Philemon 2). The Church may have met in the house of Philemon. There are three important observations that are made about this assembly.
·         The church was an indirect result of Paul;’s ministry. Although he had never been to the church, It is clear that Epaphras was a student of the Paul and went back to found the church (1:7; 3:12).
·         While there was a Jewish population, the Church seems to be composed largely of Gentiles (1:21, 27; 2:13). The vices listed in Colossians 3:5-7 are distinctively Gentile.
·         The church was facing both doctrinal problems and had serious practical problems.

The Problem

The purpose of this epistle is to combat false teaching and teachers. Bible students have struggled to identify this problem and there have been many debates as to just what this false teaching was in Colossae. There are some 44 opinions as to its identity of the apostasy by 19th and 20th century scholars.[5] Was it Gentile or Jewish in origin?  What was the Colossians heresy? “By ‘the Colossian heresy’ is meant the ‘philosophy and empty deceit’ against which the Colossian Christians are put on their guard in Colossians 2:8.[6] The only information concerning this philosophy or teaching that we have is from the epistle. It has been noted “that such false teaching is entirely plausible within the development of late Second Temple Jewish thought in general and first-century Asia Minor in particular.[7] Paul identifies the problem as that of “the tradition of men, according to the elementary principles of the world, rather than according to Christ” (2:8). Galatians 4:3, 9 indicate that this phrase applies to circumcision and the requirements of the Law. Thus, strong Jewish ritualism seems to be present (2:8, 11, 16; 3:11). In Colossians 2:16 we read of festivals, new moons, and Sabbath days. Clearly the reference is to Jewish Sabbath, although festivals and new moons were a part of non-Jewish tradition and worship. “Contrary to Orthodox Judaism, the false teachers were encouraging the veneration of angels who they believed controlled the operations of nature to some degree (2:18-19).”[8]  While elements fall within Jewish thought; there are those that are outside the boundaries of Jewish thought and practices. It is likely that these Jewish elements were mixed with the philosophy of asceticism. This asceticism is found in two extremes. First, the deprivation of the human body. In other words, they deprived the flesh to become more spiritual. Second, extreme licentiousness. This is because the body was held in contempt, thus to be abused sexually and physically.

Thus, what we may have is a sect that mixes Judaism with Greek asceticism and mysticism. Bruce identifies it as “Merkabah Mysticism.”[9] It is an early form of “Jewish Gnosticism,”[10] which held to a super spiritual experience where one enters the Pleroma (fullness), which is the “sphere of divinity with it potencies, aeons, archons, and dominions.[11] It reduced Christ to that of a being or creature, rather than creator. It held that matter was evil. It held that the deeper spiritual knowledge was only for those with superior intellects. Salvation was based on knowledge of secrets that only the super intellectuals or super spiritual could understand. It holds that the matter is evil and thus gravitated to one of the two extremes—legalism or licentiousness.

Both extremes were an attack on the centrality of Jesus Christ that would rob them of their completeness in Christ. Paul in this letter, places emphasis on the preeminence and supremacy of Christ. A.T. Robertson notes that in this epistle, Paul “exalts Jesus Christ, while the Gnostics degraded him.”[12]Contrary to the attempts of the heretics to limit Christ’s person and work, Paul exalts them, contrary to their attempt to reduce Him to the position of one among many, Paul, in agreement with the entire apostolic community, crowns Him Lord of all” declares Johnson.[13] Paul clearly presents the answer to the problem as Christ.

There is no question that the problem at Colossae had these characteristics:
·         False teaching about Jesus Christ. It was an insufficient Christology. This is evident by two elements in the epistle: First, the strong teaching about the supremacy and deity of Christ (Col. 1:15-22; 2:9). Second, warning to stay firmly grounded in Christ and to beware of deception concerning Christ (1:22-23; 2:8). Paul gives a straightforward defense against the devaluing of the person and work of Christ.
·         False teaching about the duty and practices of spiritual living. It was the false pagan philosophy, Jewish traditionalism, and syncretistic. The forms are: [1] legalism. Legalism is the conforming to a code of conduct based up law or codes for the earning of God’s acceptance. It warns against it (Col. 2:16). [2] Mysticism. Mysticism is part of many world religions and philosophies. Elements are direct spiritual experience or reality, bypassing objective truth in favor of experiential and therefore subjective truth. It makes man his own God. It is the root of the modern New Age movement. Keathley notes that, “The New Age movement promotes a belief in monism. Monism is the belief that all is one, that everything is interrelated, interdependent, and interpenetrating. It promotes the hideous idea that humanity, nature, and God are not separate from each other.”[14] It is progressive in nature gaining more and more inside knowledge of “secret truth” that only the more advanced may possess. Paul argues that the true wisdom is found in the mystery, which is Chris in you (Col, 1:27-28; 2:3, 9-10). [3] Asceticism. This teaches the body is evil. It preaches extreme denial and harsh treatment of the body. He addresses this in Col. 2:20-23. 

The Purpose of Colossians

Paul wrote Colossians for the following reasons:
·         First, to instruct and warn them of the danger imposed by the false teachers. Paul believed in preparedness and prevention. Paul’s purpose is “to provide the resources that the Colossian Christians need to fend off some kind of false teaching to which they are exposed.[15] They are not to be taken captive by the false philosophy of these men (2:8). It was an alluring seduction (2:4).
·         Second, he is concerned for their spiritual development. He wants to express his personal interest in the believers (1:3, 4; 2:3).
·         Third, he centers upon legalistic rules and regulations as superficial (2:16, 20-21).
·         Fourth, he wanted to warn them against vices of the flesh (3:5ff).  His emphasis is that it is through Christ alone we have victory over these vices (2:11-13; 3:1-4:6).
·         Fifth, He wants to counteract the deceit and arrogance that threaten the person and work of Jesus Christ. Therefore, Paul emphasizes the centrality of Jesus Christ; His deity, supremacy and sufficiency (chps. 1-2). He stresses his aim in Col. 1:28: “…we proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, that we may present every man complete in Christ.” From there he goes on to accentuate the practice of the Christian life in light of the centrality of Christ (chps. 3-4). Wrong doctrine leads to wrong living and correct doctrine to correct living.

Colossians Today

Colossians is as relevant today as it was in the days of Paul. Wiersbe has an important word regarding the relevance of Colossians for our day:
The church today desperately needs the message of Colossians. We live in a day when religious toleration is interpreted to mean “one religion is just as good as another.” Some people try to take the best from various religious systems and manufacture their own private religion. To many people, Jesus Christ is only one of several great religious teachers, with no more authority than they. He may be prominent, but He is definitely not preeminent.
This is an age of “syncretism.” People are trying to harmonize and unite many different schools of thought and come up with a superior religion. Our evangelical churches are in danger of diluting the faith in their loving attempt to understand the beliefs of others. Mysticism, legalism, Eastern religions, asceticism, and man-made philosophies are secretly creeping into churches. They are not denying Christ, but they are dethroning Him and robbing Him of His rightful place of preeminence.[16]

A Sister Epistle

Colossians is a sister epistle to Ephesians. Of the 95 verses in Colossians, 78 have a mark resemblance to Ephesians. Many believe that Ephesians is really the epistle originally sent first to the Laodiceans (Col. 4:16). It is believed that it was a circular epistle and ended up in Ephesus. However, no real proof of this exists. Both Colossians and Ephesians have the same general theme: Christ and the Church. The church is always local in Colossians, but it is universal in Ephesians. In Ephesians the theme is “the Church in Christ.” In Colossians it is “Christ in the Church.” They complement and supplement each other. Gromacki gives these related contrasts:[17]                                                                                                                                                                                                   
  • Completeness in Christ
  • Mystery of Christ in the body of the believer
  • Emphasis on Christ as the Head of the Body of Christ.

  • Oneness in Christ
  • Mystery of Jews and Gentiles as one in the Body of Christ.
  • Emphasis on the Church as the Body of Christ.

There is also similarity in the wording of the two epistles. In both we find exact words and/or short phrases (cf. Eph. 1:1c and Col. 1:2a; Eph. 1:4 and Col. 1:22; Eph. 1:7 and Col. 1:14; Eph. 1:10 and Col. 1:20; Eph. 1:15 and Col. 1:3-4, and others). Exact phrases or sentences are found (Cf. Eph. 1:1a and Col. 1:1a; Eph. 1:1b and Col. 1:2a; Eph. 1:2a and Col. 1:2b; Eph. 1:13 and Col. 1:5; Eph. 2:1 and Col. 2:13; Eph. 2:5b and Col. 2:13c, Eph 4:1b and Col 1:10a; and Eph. 6:21-22 and Col. 4:7-9). In fact, in the closing verses are identical in the Greek, with 29 consecutive words; Colossians adds the words “and fellow bond slave.”  Likewise, the theological concepts are alike:
  • Eph. 1:3 and Col. 1:3                          a prayer of thanksgiving
  • Eph. 2:1 and Col. 1:21                        alienation
  • Eph. 2:15 and Col. 2:14                      the Law’s antagonism
  • Eph. 4:1 and Col. 1:10                        walk worthy
  • Eph. 4:15 and Col. 2:19                      growing to maturity
  • Eph. 4:19 and Col. 3:5                        sexual impurity
  • Eph. 4:22, 31 and Col. 3:8                  be kind to one another
  • Eph. 4:32 and Col. 3:12-13                 lay aside sin
  • Eph. 5:4 and Col. 3:8                          our speech
  • Eph. 5:18 and Col. 3:16                      filling of the spirit
  • Eph. 5:22 and Col. 3:18                      wives subject to husbands
  • Eph. 5:25 and Col. 3:19                      husbands love your wife
  • Eph. 6:1 and Col. 3:20                        obedience of children 
  • Eph. 6:4 and Col. 3:21                        fathers provoke not your children
  • Eph. 6:5 and Col. 3:22                        slaves obey masters
  • Eph. 6:9 and Col. 4:1                          Master-slave relationship
  • Eph. 6:18 and Col. 4:2-4                     Paul’s request for prayer.

These are truly sister epistles. Both epistles delivered by Tychicus to churches in the same area.

[1]  J.B. Lightfoot, ST. PAUL’S EPISTLES TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHILEMON, [London, MacMilllian, 1890], 16.
[2]  For an analysis and defense of the authorship is provided concisely in Pao, W. David, ZECNT COLOSSIANS & PHILEMON, [Grand Rapid, Zondervan, 2012], 20-23  
[3] I. Howard Marshall, Stephen Travis & Ian Paul, EXPLORING THE NEW TESTAMENT, Volume 2, [Downers Grove IL, Inter-Varsity Press, 2002], 160.
[4]  William Barclay, The Letters to the Philippians, Colossians, and Thessalonians (Philadelphia, The Westminster Press, 2nd ed., 1959), 122.

[5]  H. Wayne House, “Doctrinal Issues in Colossians: Part 1: Heresies in the Colossians Church,” BIBLIOTHECA SACRA, [Dallas TX] January 1992, 46. This publication will be footnoted as BIB-SAC from this point on.
[6]  F.F. Bruce, “The Colossian Heresy,” BIB-SAC., July 1984, 195.
[8]  Thomas Constable, NOTES ON COLOSSIANS, [, 2004], 2.
[9]  Bruce, “Heresy,” 202.
[10]  Ibid. 203.
[11]  Ibid. 203.
[12]  A.T. Robertson, PAUL AND THE INTELLECTUALS, [Nashville, Broadman, 1959], 21.
[13]  S. Lewis Johnson, “Studies in Colossians: Part 1,” BIB-SAC, July 1961, 245-246.
[15]  Douglas J. Moo, PNTC: THE LETTERS TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHILEMON, [Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 2008], 47.
[16]  Warren W. Wiersbe, BE COMPLETE, (Victor Books, Wheaton, Ill., 1981), 18.
[17]  Gromacki, STAND PERFECT, 16.